Too Cheap, Too Expensive – It’s All About Beating The Competition To It

As every business is unique, there are variances in pricing the products and services in every company. Not all of them incorporate strategies that aim to sell the highest possible amount (or all of it) of what they are selling, just so it could act as an indicator of company’s market performance or success. Rather, the usual approach is setting the pricing to sell the optimal amount of products and services you offer, all the while gaining maximum profit per each sale.
How you use your pricing strategy to determine the price of your goods depends on a number of factors. These include the ever-present competition, the price elasticity of what you are selling and, most importantly, the perception of both your existing and potential customers towards your products and services. This, in turn, affects your sales. It stands to reason that finding the right pricing strategy while retaining satisfactory sales volume might require some trial and error. In this post, we’ll explain how you can avoid some of the hit-and-miss situations and stay one step ahead of your competition.

Pricing smart

As every pricing analyst and expert knows, each product and service has an optimal price range based on what a customer will usually pay. As there are factors such as supply and demand that directly influence it, the pricing strategy will shift accordingly. In that regard, companies often employ two pricing strategies:

  • discount pricing policy or underpricing
  • premium pricing policy or overpricing

Impact of a discount pricing policy – underpricing your goods

While discounting may sound like a tempting idea, especially in times when the going gets tough, it’s important to remember that it can also hurt your business, most notably your cash flow. Decreasing the price of your product means you need to increase your sales volume in order to achieve the same profit. And, as most managers know, that can be quite tricky.

Underpricing is best suited as a short-term solution which can have a long-term impact, manifesting either in increased or decreased profits. Having a discount pricing policy set as a long-term strategy is a risky business and hard to pull off, mainly because there is a very thin margin for profit. In that case, a business needs to develop a continuous stream of large volume sales so its strategy could pay off in the end. Problems with this pricing policy might also suggest there are other issues or weaknesses in your business that force you to lower your prices in the first place, not as a part of an ongoing business strategy.

Impact of a premium pricing policy – overpricing your goods

In contrast, increasing the price of your product could significantly lower your sales volume, albeit retain profit levels. Introducing a premium pricing strategy means you attain a “higher price and margin, lower volume” approach which has all the potential to gloriously backfire. At their core, customers are wired to look around for the cheapest deal in most cases. As much as they care about quality, it seems they care more about their wallet. In the end, you could end up with an overpriced product that could sit on the shelf and collect dust.

What to do?

As the two strategies can have opposing outcomes, it can be difficult to pinpoint what exactly best suits your business. However, there are some things to take into consideration when defining your pricing strategy. Most notably – your competition (the post title kinda gave this away).

In order to stay competitive in the market, you have to find that sweet spot that includes competitive pricing with profit margins. The retail market is highly competitive so you need to consider and try to ascertain three things to compete:

  1. Product differentiation – having a product that stands out in the market would allow you to employ a premium pricing strategy, thus not relying so much on sales volumes as long as you have the competitive edge.
  2. Customer value – the quality of your products and service, as well as the variation in the assortment, can sustain the “higher price, higher margin, lower volume” policy if you can readily meet your customers’ demands and expectations in terms of overall value.
  3. Price – this is the first indicator of your pricing policy and the one that gets the most attention.

Basing your pricing strategy on valuation (pricing research derived from actual sales history) can help you keep your listings aligned with market prices. To do so, your options are restricted to two methods:

  • Manual tracking
  • Automated solutions

When it comes to manual tracking, this is an option that provides nominally cheap(er) assessment of your competitor’s prices. Working in Excel is fine as you can focus on the competitors that matter to you the most on your own pace. However, the pace is the main issue at hand here. Prices are the most obvious form of competitive advantage and they are highly dynamic, thus it’s very easy to miss most of the changes. Time is vital and tracking large amounts of price data by yourself increases the chances of missing some of the data, thus jeopardizing the accuracy of your reports.

On the other hand, competitive intelligence software like Intelligence Node’s Incompetitor (product tracking) and Inoptimizer (price optimization) allows for a deeper focus on product and price data analysis through automation. It saves time and resources and offers analytical insights into market trends. Because the software does the majority of work for you, there is no problem with the scope of your competition tracking (usually, you can track millions of products without any hassle) so you can focus on those that compete both directly and indirectly with you. All in all, you can make more informed and accurate decisions in a timely manner, thus stay ahead of others.

Conclusion

Balancing between not harming the brand by lowering prices too much and not alienating customers with your higher prices can be tough. As some buyers will look for the best deal available, others are willing to pay more for a unique selection and better features and service. Finding that optimal middle ground requires researching your competition. Depending on your needs, that means utilizing either workforce or software to carry out the chore of keeping tabs on others. Be sure to cover all of your competitors with your analysis or you might miss on some of the opportunities and lose the competitive advantage you might have.

 

Is Your Pricing Enabling A Healthy Profit Margin?

When a business sets its pricing policy, it looks to both make and save money while ideally increasing profit margins. This is an ongoing process that demands constant commitment through regular evaluation. Getting the pricing wrong can hurt a business and diminish its profit margins. And we all know that a solid profit margin is an essential part of financial health in the long run.

Profit margin is perhaps the most analyzed number during the company’s lifetime. It is a rather useful pointer that can help a company provide insight about a number of aspects regarding its financial performance, with profit margin fluctuations the ever-present subject of numerous analyses. In broad terms, low profit margins could suggest various problems. For this post, we are sticking with pricing, a very important factor in determining whether a low or high profit margin indicates a profitable business. We will mention different ways how pricing affects your profit margin and is it healthy enough or sustainable.

1. Have a long-term plan

Setting pricing for your goods should be a part of a larger plan, a group of multiple strategies to maximize your profits. A business needs to develop a plan that covers all the little ways of how products get sourced, distributed and sold, all the while monitoring the prices. The main focus is on the level of profitability of every product you sell. Make your items more valuable and competitive but also pay attention to those that may be losing money and turn them around quickly.

2. Avoid same profit margins for different products

What some companies fail to grasp is that price optimization leads to optimized profit. All customers have different perceptions of your goods and they assign different values to those same goods. Every product needs a price that shows the customer’s willingness to purchase it. This is a display of the customer’s perception of the value of your product that ultimately has nothing to do with the profit margin of other product lines.

Take Parker, the motion and control technologies company, as an example. In 2002, a new CEO determined to change the company’s uniform price policy across the entire range of 800,000 products. Understandably, the company was in a profit margin standstill until the change was made to switch to the new pricing scheme. As a result, the company gained over $800 million in profits during the course of seven years by solely focusing on its pricing.

3. Create perceived value with your pricing

A business should always set its pricing so it creates a perceived value for its customers. Perceived value is what essentially delivers purchases by attracting customers. You can see it all the time – people favor some shops because they believe they are getting the best deal around. This may be true most of the time, but even if it is false in reality, the perceived value is what makes them come back.

Naturally, this is all easier said than done, which is why mastering perceived value demands a thorough analysis of large volumes of data to recognize which option is best. Do you lower your prices to appeal to those looking for bargains or do you cater to those willing to pay premium prices because they believe they are getting a product with better quality? As there is plenty of market research involved, creating perceived value is complex, which is why your best bet might be utilizing some form of pricing intelligence software that significantly automates the process.

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4. Don’t use cost-driven pricing

Among businesses, one of the basic calculations of setting the prices for goods is by following a simple formula:

  • the cost of the product + profit margin = price

It makes sense as you want your pricing to take into consideration the overall cost. However, even if you account the cost correctly and set a healthy profit margin, your pricing might still hurt you. Why? Because of the all-important customer perceived value. Understanding the cost part of the equation is important as there are various costs to account for (materials, time, manufacturing and distributing costs, marketing costs and so on) in order to achieve a reliable profit margin.

Still, basing your pricing on costs rather than customer’s perception of value takes away the customer’s willingness to pay as it might not believe the product is worth the price you set. The price is not the only factor that is important to a buyer. Recognizing and understanding how and why customers value your products will allow you to set a price that truly reflects that value and attain a healthy profit margin.

5. Segment your customers

As we mentioned earlier, customers have different requirements so you need to differentiate them into segments. Chances are, your company attracts a wide array of customers with particular demands and reasons. The value proposition for any of your products (or a variation of it) is different in different market segments. Hence, your pricing must reflect that difference. It should include tailoring the product and pricing strategies to specific customer segments if you want to attain the additional value created by these segments.

Conclusion

Pricing is a vital part of doing business, providing a competitive advantage and higher levels of profitability if done right out of the gate. To do that requires diligent work and keeping in mind the five point above. It all starts with a well-rounded agenda that follows the way of maximizing your profits. This includes having different profit margins for different products that have prices that best reflect the customer’s willingness to pay. Creating perceived value ensures you will attract customers and possibly retain them for multiple purchases. It’s not easy to master but with the right tools, it can be done. Avoid pricing your products based solely on costs – it does not reflect the true value of your product and it will turn your customers away. Finally, don’t treat all your customers the same as they ascribe different values to your products. Instead, align your prices with their value perceptions and enjoy increased profits.

If you found this useful and you’d like to learn how to take your pricing strategy to the next level, we invite you to download our free 20 secrets to designing the best pricing strategy eBook. Click below to take advantage of this opportunity.

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Lies and damn lies about pricing data

It’s one thing for a lie to be a simple inaccuracy regarding a specific set of information. It’s a whole another story and a real problem when those lies become common practices. There are some instances where lies and myths about pricing data become a part of company’s culture, so deeply integrated with their business strategy that it hampers any kind of progress regarding optimal pricing.

Given the overall complexity and volume of pricing data, there are many things that constitute a successful evaluation of price optimization. In this post, we’ll explore the top lies and misconceptions that are more often than not associated with pricing data. Hopefully, this will give you a better understanding and help you make more informed decisions, as well as what you can expect in terms of optimized pricing and improved profitability.

The lie: “The market alone dictates the prices”

The truth: While it is true that the market has a direct influence on price ranges, it’s a lie that it alone sets the final price. Pricing managers, accompanying the business’ pricing policy and strategy, have the means and the opportunity to differentiate their products and services and create value for them. Market price doesn’t necessarily mean you have to accommodate to it, rather you need to accommodate your price to your customers. MIT Sloan performed a research a couple of years ago and stated that “pricing power is not destiny, but a learned behavior”, meaning pricing is almost always based on knowledgeable insights, even though competition, costs and price sensitivity within a market have a significant effect.

The lie: “We are in a commodity business”

As a prime example of when a lie or misconception takes a wrong turn, having a firm belief that a company is a commodity business leads to unconditional acceptance of the prevailing prices in the market. Companies needlessly label themselves as price takers, believing higher prices will cause customers to flee. This unnecessary pigeonholing clouds the range of factors that customers actually care about and that justify having premium prices.

The truth: This lie, often named “commodity mindset”, manifests in a shifting strategy that uses competitive price cuts to retain profitability as the prevailing thought is it’s better to sell at discount prices than not at all. Yet, this behavior is slowly lowering profit margin to a minimum and actually harming the business by lowering prices too much or too often. It also means trouble in the long run as your customers expect lower prices each time, all the while the issue of a price increase is practically inconceivable. Instead, focus on the unique selling points of your product, together with the complete service that goes into the process (customer service, delivery, durability, ease of use, etc.) and build your price on that. This ultimately provides incremental value to your product and avoids potential restrictions.

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The lie: “Price changes are too difficult to measure accurately”

The truth: Tracking all the changes in prices, customer behavior, production cost, and sales volume can be an intimidating task, but far from being too difficult or impossible. It’s a part of the process to stay up to date with all the changes in the business environment and all its facets. It takes some time to reach a level of analytical awareness that can produce accurate calculations in order to set optimal pricing. It’s a time-consuming process that can also be very expensive. A possible way to overcome this and optimize profit margins at a product level is to use a pricing software with analytical tools.

The lie: “Every customer is price sensitive”

The truth: The majority of markets have customers whose primary and only concern is the price, but they are not the only type nor the prevailing one in some cases. There are customers who look beyond the price tag and value additional service attributes that, as a whole, form a selling package. This is roughly the same set of parameters we discussed just a few lines before – customer support, delivery options, ease of use and so on. The key here is to recognize through market segmentation which customers, under which situations (also an important factor), care for the overall package and not just the price. That way, you can build your business around that focus group and price them accordingly. This brings us to the next popular lie…

The lie:“Customers deflect with increased pricing”

The truth: As evidenced above, this is not necessarily true. Of course, we are not talking about mindless spiking of prices in order to boost profit margin. That won’t go. When a business adds new features or enhances existing characteristics to your product, it has every right to set higher prices and ask for more money from its customers because its product now has more value.

It is true that you may lose a few customers here and there, it’s the nature of the business. However, apart from that niche group of customers that care about more than just the price, there are also customers who will listen and understand your reasoning if you present it up-front.  Robert Cialdini, author of the book Influence, demonstrates the importance of explaining your actions. Without an explanation for your price increase, your customers will create their own and pull away from the brand. However, if you put an effort to explain why, they will accept the increase easier and will ultimately become the loyal customers who truly understand and value what you offer. For instance, Procter & Gamble was re-launching the Olay brand by testing three prices:

  • $12.99 – sales were good, affordable product to the mass market);
  • $15.99 – sales tanked, not expensive enough to be considered a premium cosmetic for the mass market, too cheap for the prestige shopper to consider it a quality product);
  • $18.99 – sales were great, good value (credible and not too cheap or expensive for both categories

In the end, the company picked the third price of $18.99 and it became a $2.4 billion dollar business with double digit growth and great margins.

The lie: “Having the highest-priced products in the market won’t sell”

The truth: This lie often comes from the buyers themselves who, naturally, look out for their best interest by trying to score the best bargain. They have a good reason to complain about your prices but you should also have a good reason for those prices. Justify your prices by rationalizing how your products and services contrast from the rest and place accent on how your goods deliver value. Once you do that and the customers realize it, you’ll start to create a base of loyal customers who will repeatedly come back.

people don't buy what you do

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People don’t buy what you do, they buy why you do it”. Take Apple as an example. The company has had a rough history in the 90’s but has managed to become one of the tech leaders today. How? 1. by delivering a top-notch product and 2. By creating an entire culture around their brand. They sell some of the most expensive devices but people still buy them, even if it would be more cost-effective to hold onto the older model. The focus should be on selling on value, not on price in order for customers to pay more here than less elsewhere.

Conclusion

As most managers know, it takes a number of factors to accurately gauge correct pricing. In doing so, it helps to strive for product and service differentiation by accounting value all-around for your customers, be it through price alone, on-time delivery, better customer service or something else.

However, there’s a number of misleading assumptions and outright lies that can affect entire pricing structure. This is where your research comes into play. A business should always make decisions based on actionable insights within its own sales data, as well as the competition’s. Proper business analysis can quickly pinpoint the areas where you can improve your profit margin and eliminate the uncertainty and unproven principles that many take for granted. As evidenced in the examples we’ve mentioned above, strategic thinking directly impacts the company’s bottom line. Once you form a pricing policy and strategy, it doesn’t take much to update the data and stay on top of it.  Put your margins in the first place and create value for your products without succumbing to the lies, myths a, d misconceptions.

If you found this useful and you’d like to learn how to take your pricing strategy to the next level, we invite you to download our free 20 secrets to designing the best pricing strategy eBook. Click below to take advantage of this opportunity.

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How to Define a Price Point that Will Push Out Competitors

When launching a business, pricing isn’t necessarily the sole deciding factor in how well your product or service will perform. However, it is certainly a major contributor to your company’s potential for long-term success and not a decision to be taken lightly. More specifically, your price point — that is, the suggested retail price you put in place to win customers — often helps to define your business, what it stands for and the consumers your product attracts. Continue reading “How to Define a Price Point that Will Push Out Competitors”

Setting Retail Prices Right — Everything You Need To Know

One of the daunting tasks being in retail is setting the price and setting it right. Pricing isn’t easy when you’re in the retail scenario—you set the price low and you lose out on profits—you set the price high and you lose out on customers.

It’s completely up to you to decide whether you want to sell a lower volume and charge a higher price or high volumes and lower prices. It’s for you to decide the direction which will enable you to make profits.

However, when you have a range of products to see, you can take the risk of lowering the prices of few products sometimes, as long you can keep the prices of other products marked up higher.

Continue reading “Setting Retail Prices Right — Everything You Need To Know”

10 Ways to Use Bundle Pricing for eCommerce

No matter if you are a novice in the eCommerce game or an expert, there is no doubt you are familiar with the splendors of bundle pricing. From McDonald’s Happy Meal option to a 2-for-1 deal of your favorite shampoo at Walgreens. Businesses around the world use it all the time and customer’s love it.

With the right bundle pricing strategies, you can use this as a marketing tool that can benefit everyone involved. Customers are getting a deal, your store is receiving business, and the consumer may be encouraged to return to this one source for a multitude of needs. In order to fully understand how bundle pricing can achieve all of that, let’s take a deeper look at the advantages that come with it. Continue reading “10 Ways to Use Bundle Pricing for eCommerce”

How to Take Advantage of Ecommerce Fulfillment Pricing

With each passing year, eCommerce sites are becoming more and more established as consumers’ preferred way to shop. Thanks to the convenience involved in online shopping and the wider variety of products that sites can offer, the customer experience offered online is both rising in prominence as well as shaping the retail landscape in general.

Shipping options, for example, are now one of the deciding factors in where customers choose to shop. However, in addition to its vital role in setting up product offers, there’s another side to shipping and fulfillment in general that needs to be addressed, namely the concept of eCommerce fulfillment pricing.

What Is eCommerce Fulfillment Pricing?

At its most basic, fulfillment is defined as “the process of receiving, packaging and shipping orders for goods.” The term is generally tied to the eCommerce world, and when it comes to designing a fulfillment strategy, companies are often faced with handling their own fulfillment or outsourcing to an organization that specializes in this specific niche. Both sides carry their own drawbacks and benefits that eCommerce businesses need to consider carefully, especially seeing as fulfillment has more than its fair share of additional costs associated with it.

However, with fulfillment costs continuing to rise across the board, many eCommerce businesses are having to shift their approach to pricing in response. With fulfillment needs in mind, this technique allow businesses to compensate for increased fulfillment costs and design their price points to offset this ongoing trend. With the proper tools to navigate the changing fulfillment costs, pricing can keep your company firmly on the upswing and prevent your profits from suffering in the long run.

Ways to Optimize

In keeping up with fulfillment costs, you may need to switch up how you price your products going forward. Fortunately, there are more than a few ways to optimize. We highly encourage adopting the latest technology — such as automated systems — to help streamline your operation and declutter your fulfillment process. However, here are some other tips that can help you achieve optimal results.

 

  • Offer free shipping: We’ve previously discussed the strategic power of incorporating free shipping into your offer. Though free shipping may seem in direct contrast with maintaining a tight fulfillment strategy, the benefits in reducing shopping cart abandonment, boosting sales and edging out competitors will more than make up for any perceived loss. Moreover, you can structure it based on a minimum order amount and devise the best way to offset any lost profits through pricing.

 

  • Work with a variety of carriers: Based on your customers’ and your business’s needs, you should have relationships with several carriers and fulfillment partners to help maximize your profits. This will be based on a combination of delivery needs, service level and costs, but when all is said and done, you should be able to keep your fulfillment running smoother than ever. As a bonus, you’ll have easy access to shift towards other carriers if something changes.

 

  • Real-time carrier rates and flat rates: Introducing real-time carrier rates or flat rates is another way to adjust your shipping in the face of changing fulfillment costs. With real-time carrier rates, you can use any number of eCommerce platforms to integrate your shipping process with standard postal organizations to ensure that the most updated rates are applied to a given purchase, giving your customers the chance to choose one. Flat rates can be just as rewarding, though you must be careful to establish a median rate that will not overcharge or undercharge the shipping of a certain product. If all your products are fairly similar in terms of size and weight, this might be the best way to go.

Just the Beginning

Although we’ve discussed a few ways that you can adjust your business to compensate for the cost of fulfillment, countless options still remain. Be sure to delve into in-depth pricing comparisons before instituting any widespread changes, and calculate what works for you. After all, eCommerce fulfillment pricing varies wildly from business to business — due to your location, your products and a number of other factors — and such a specific decision is one that only you can make for your business. Price mapping, for instance, is an excellent way to investigate whether any changes you might be considering make sense within the context of your business.

For more invaluable insights into how you should approach your company’s pricing, check out our Comprehensive Guide to Competitive Online Retail Pricing Strategies.

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How to Use the Price Quality Matrix to Optimize Your Product Pricing

Product pricing is one of the biggest questions retailers face for a reason. The relationship between an item’s price and its quality — and perceived value to consumers — is oftentimes the deciding factor in shaping whether or not a purchase ever takes place.

In such an increasingly crowded marketplace, the concept of cash cow marketing has been called into question, leaving sellers in the eCommerce space and beyond to reevaluate how they approach their respective businesses. Fortunately, the Price Quality Matrix presents a simple way to leverage product value and address the pricing dilemma head-on.

What Is the Price Quality Matrix?

Designed by Philip Kotler, the Price Quality Matrix centers on the cross-section between the two metrics that lend the model its name. By determining the position of your products or services relative to the competition, retailers are able to use the price and quality of each item to identify where they stand in the market. Of course, this knowledge can then be incorporated directly into your decision-making process when it comes time to devise pricing strategy. Just think of it as another way to assess your relevance in today’s fast-paced and ever-changing business landscape.

 

price quality strategy model

How you price your products plays an integral role in how they’re perceived by consumers. So it’s important to ensure that the quality of your offer complements your price point accordingly. Based on Kotler’s nine-variable model, let’s take a closer look at the possibilities that result depending on how price and quality interact with each product or service.

  • Premium (high price/high quality): When a product’s high price is matched by its quality, this creates an image of a premium item that consumers consider a worthwhile investment, such as Apple products.
  • Over charging (high price/medium quality): Even if a product’s quality is sound, it can be tricky to elevate the price point beyond what the product offers. Tread carefully in this scenario.
  • Rip off (high price/low quality): In case the name of this category isn’t a dead giveaway, steer clear of this one at all costs, as selling a subpar product for such a high price point is a surefire way to stir bad word of mouth when consumers get wise.
  • High value (medium price/high quality): Conventional wisdom says that your price should surpass your product quality, since the implication is that your business will be able to turn a profit more easily. Yet, it may be worth it to offer a high-quality product at a slightly lower price upfront to build word of mouth.
  • Average (medium price/medium quality): As its name implies, these products are the very definition of “you get what you pay for.” Generally, consumers know that the value they receive from a given product is in line with the price point. It’s always a good idea to offer a lower priced alternative of premium products to encourage engagement.
  • False economy (medium price/low quality): The aforementioned danger in overpricing your products applies here as well, though to a lesser extent. You’re better off developing a better product or dropping the price to fall more closely in line with your product offering.
  • Superb value (low price/high quality): The best-case scenario for consumers, a high-quality product with a low price can be tricky to pull off and could end up getting into your bottom line.
  • Good value (low price/medium quality): Consumers are always on the lookout for an affordable, quality product. To foster long-term customer loyalty, it might be worth it to feature your medium-tier products at a slightly lower price point.
  • Economy (low price/low quality): There’s something to be said of economy options. In your business, this may simply be a free version of a product that offers fewer features. However, it’s an easy gateway to establish more profitable customer relationships down the line and well worth considering.

The Price Quality Matrix Revolution

In recent years, product pricing has become a bigger issue than ever before, thanks to the dynamic created by increased automation and the expansion of online retailers. However, by developing a better understanding of the connection between price and quality as described by Kotler’s model, you can use the psychological aspects of product pricing to create a trust with customers that will ultimately reap long-term rewards. Simply asking yourself where each of your product offerings fits within the above categories can shape a clearer vision of where you fit within the marketplace and the possibilities for growth that lie ahead of you.

For more details about how you can optimize your pricing and foster the success and reach of your business, check out our eBook, “A Comprehensive Guide to Competitive Online Retail Pricing Strategies.

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Pricing Psychology Tricks: How and Why They Work

Pricing psychology is more essential than ever to position your business for success in the marketplace. In fact, its use dates back at least to the late 19th century, as newspapers battled for readership supremacy. Nowadays, consumers are inundated with sales offers at every turn, and while today’s technology makes it easier than ever to reach prospective customers, it also means that your message is more likely to get lost in the shuffle. Yet, the key to distinguishing your product or service from your competitors lies in how well you grasp the conscious and subconscious thought processes that governs the decision-making of your target customer base. Continue reading “Pricing Psychology Tricks: How and Why They Work”

List price, the sales fatigued shopper and misleading deals

Before we dive into the subject, let’s establish what ‘list price’ is just so we are on the same page. In very simple terms, list price or manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MSRP) is the full price for which a business entity is willing to sell its products, without applying any discounts or special offers. While the manufacturing and distribution costs are taken into account for arriving at the list price for consumer goods, it’s the demand vs supply dynamics and level of competition which dictate how much profit margin can be applied.

Continue reading “List price, the sales fatigued shopper and misleading deals”